CPCC Library logo

MLA 9 Changes

The most significant change from MLA 8 to MLA 9 is that MLA 9 re-includes the https:// at the beginning of URLs.

We recommend including the https:// in URLs even if you have not required your class to move to MLA 9.

MLA Works Cited

Websites and Images on Websites

‚ÄčWITH AUTHOR

Format: 

Author: Last name, first name. "Title of page in quotes." Title of website in italics, Publication date, URL. 

Example:

Shiva, Vandana. "Bioethics: A Third World Issue." Native Web, 2 Dec. 2015, https://www.nativeweb.org/pages/legal/shiva.html.

In-text citation (author's last name):

(Shiva)


NO AUTHOR

Format: 

"Title of page in quotes." Title of website in italics, Publication date, URL. 

Example:  

"Bioethics: A Third World Issue." Native Web, 2 Dec. 2015, https://www.nativeweb.org/pages/legal/shiva.html.

In-text citation (first words of title in quotes):

("Bioethics")


NO DATE

Format: 

"Title of page in quotes." Title of website in italics, URL. Accessed date.

Example:  

"Bioethics: A Third World Issue." Native Web, https://www.nativeweb.org/pages/legal/shiva.html. Accessed 24 Feb. 2018.

In-text citation (first words of title in quotes):

("Bioethics")

Article from a Database

Format:

Author's last name, first name. "Title of article in quotes." Journal/Magazine/Newspaper/Source title in italics, volume if available, issue number if available, date published, pages if available. Database name in italics, URL.

Example:

Guarzano, Katherine. "The Power of One: Citizen Suits in the Fight Against Global Warming." Boston College Environmental Affairs Law Review, vol 4, issue 5, 14 Mar. 2015, Proquest, https://www.bcealr.com/powerofone.html.

In-text citation:

(Guarzano 146).

NOTE: If page numbers are not available for the in-text citation, do not include them. For example: (Guarzano). 

 

Youtube, Films on Demand

Format:

Author, last name, first name. "Video title (in quotes)." Title of Website (italicized), Date uploaded, URL. 

Example:

CineFix. "Elf Recut as a Thriller." Youtube, 24 Dec. 2016, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=EkwdYSn3Uws.

In-text citation (Author's last name):

(CineFix)

Personal Interview

Format:

Last name, first name of Interviewee. Personal Interview, Date.

Example:

Smith, Becky. Personal Interview. 1 Dec. 2011. 

In-text citation (Interviewee last name):

(Smith)

Interviewee Last Name, First Name Smith comma space Becky period space Personal Interview Personal space Interview period space Date of Interview 1 space Dec period space 2011 period

Books

 1 AUTHOR

Format:

Author's last name, first name. Book Title in italics. Publisher, Publication year.

Example:

Wood, James. How Fiction Works. Farrar, 2008. 

In-text citation (Author's last name space page number):

(Wood 47)

Author Wood comma James period Book Title How Fiction Works in italics period space Publisher Farrar comma space Year Published 2008 period


2 AUTHORS

Format:

Author's last name, first name and second author's first name last name. Book Title in italics. Publisher, Publication year.

Example:

Wood, James and Patrick Swayze. How Fiction Works. Farrar, 2008. 

In-text citation (Author's last name and Author's last name space page number):

(Wood and Swayze 47)

Authors Wood comma James and Patrick Swayze period space Title in italics How Fiction Works period space Publisher Farrar comma space Year Publihsed 2008 period


3 OR MORE AUTHORS

Format:

Author's last name, first name, et al. Book Title in italics. Publisher, Publication year.

Example:

Wood, James, et al. How Fiction Works. Farrar, 2008. 

In-text citation: (Author's last name et al. space page number):

(Wood et al. 47)

Authors Wood comma James comma et al period space Title in italics How Fiction Works period space Publisher Farrar comma space Year Published 2008 period


Format:

Author's last name, first name. Book Title in italics. Edition Number, Publisher, Publication year.

Example:

Wood, James. How Fiction Works Native. 2nd Edition, Farrar, 2008. 

In-text citation (Author's last name space page number):

(Wood 47)

Author Wood, space James Title in italics How Fiction Works period space Edition 2nd Edition comma Publisher Farrar comma space Year Published 2008 period


ESSAY, STORY, OR POEM IN A COLLECTION OR ANTHOLOGY

Format:

Author: Last Name, First Name. "Title of Essay/Story/Poem in quotes." Book title in italics, edited by First Name Last Name, Publisher, Year Published, pages. 

Example:

Dewar, James. "The Cultural Consequences of Printing and the Internet." Agent of Change: Print Culture Studies After Elizabeth L. Eisenstein, edited by Sabrina Alcorn, University of Massachusetts Press, 2017, pp 365-77. 

In-text citation (author's last name space page number):

(Dewar 365)

Author Dewar comma James period space Story or Article Title open quotes The Cultural Consequences of Printing and the Internet period close quotes next line hanging indent Book Title in italics Agent of Change colon space Print Culture Studies After Elizabeth L period space Eisenstein comma next line hanging indent Editor edited by Sabrina Alcorn comma space Publisher University of Massachusetts Press comma Year 2017 comma space Pages pp period 365 dash 77 period


VOLUME IN A SET

Format:

Author's last name, first name. Book title in italics. Edition number. Volume number. Publisher, Publication year. Number of volumes.

Example:

Gilman, Frank. Encyclopedia of Careers and Vocational Guidance. 15th edition, vol. 4, Ferguson's, 2013. 5 vols.

In-text example:

(Gilman)

NOTE: If the book only has an editor and not an author, add ", editor" to the author's first name. For example:

Gilman, Frank, editor. Encyclopedia of Careers and Vocational Guidance. 15th edition, vol. 4, Ferguson's, 2013. 5 vols.

Author Gilman comma Frank period Book Title in italics Encyclopedia of Careers and Vocational Guidance period next line hanging indent Edition 15th edition comma space Volume vol period 4 comma space Publisher Ferguson's comma Year 2013 period Number of volumes 5 vols period


EBOOK

Format: 

Author's last name, first name. eBook Title (italicized), year of publication. Website or Database Name (italicized), URL. 

Example:

Powell, Kerry. Women and Victorian Theatre, 1997. EBSCOHost. https://exproxy.cpcc.edu/login?url+http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=nlek&AN=3771

In-text citation (Author's last name space page number):

(Powell 73)

Twitter

Format:

Twitter Handle + period, Entire Tweet (in quotations) + period, Title of Website (Italicized) + period, Date posted (inverted) + comma, time posted + comma, URL.

Example:

@persiankiwi. "We have a report of large street battles in east & west of Teheran now - #iranelection." Twitter. 23 June 2009, 11:15 a.m., https://twitter.com/persiankiwi/status/2298106072.

In-text citation (Twitter handle):

(@persiankiwi)

Email Message

Format:

Sender: last name, first name. Subject line in quotes. Received by first name, last name, date of email.

Example:

Boyle, Anthony T. "Re: Utopia." Received by Daniel J. Cahill, 21 June 1999.

In-text citation (Sender's last name):

(Boyle)

Email author's Last Name, First Name Boyle comma space Anthony space T period space Title of Email open quote Re colon space Utopia period close quote space Received by First name, Last name Received space by space Daniel space J period space Cahill comma space Date of email 21 space June space 1999 period