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APA References

The APA citation formats (6th edition) provided below are the most commonly used. 

For a more comprehensive list of citation formats, visit the Purdue Online Writing Lab (OWL).

       

Websites-APA

Web Page with Author

Format:

Author(s) last name + initials. Publication date in parentheses. Title of page in sentence case. Title of website in italics. Retrieved from URL. 

Example:

Cain, A. & Burris M. (1999, April 8). Investigation of the use of mobile phones while driving. Center for Urban Transport Research. Retrieved from https://www.cutr.usf.edu/oldpubs/mobile_phone.PDF

In-text citation:

(Cain & Burris, 1999)

Authors Cain comma space A period space ampersand space Burris space M period space n period d period open parentheses 1999 comma April 8 close parentheses period Article or Web page Title Investigation of the use of mobile phones while driving period Website Name in italics Center for Urban Transport next line hanging indent Research period Retrieved from Date Retrieved March space 2 comma space 2015 from space https backslash backslash www period cutr period usf period edu backslash old pubs backslash mobile underscore phone period PDF


Web Page with No Date

Format: 

Author(s) last name + initials. n.d. in parentheses. Title of page in sentence case. Title of website in italics. Retrieved Date from URL. 

Example: 

Cain, A. & Burris M. (n.d). Investigation of the use of mobile phones while driving. Center for Urban Transport Research. Retrieved March 2, 2015 from https://www.cutr.usf.edu/oldpubs/mobile_phone.PDF

In-text citation: 

(Cain & Burris, n.d.)

NOTE:  When citing a web page that may change over time (a blog, a regularly-updated informational site like Yahoo Finance) and/or that has multiple authors/editors (like Wikis), be sure to include an access date between "Retrieved" and "from."  

Authors Cain comma space A period space ampersand space Burris space M period space n period d period open parentheses n period space d close parentheses period Article or Web page Title Investigation of the use of mobile phones while driving period Website Name in italics Center for Urban Transport next line hanging indent Research period Retrieved from Date Retrieved March space 2 comma space 2015 from space https backslash backslash www period cutr period usf period edu backslash old pubs backslash mobile underscore phone period PDF


Web Page with No Author

Format: 

Title of page in sentence case. (Date). Title of website in italics. Retrieved Date from URL. 

Example: 

Investigation of the use of mobile phones while driving. (1999, April). Center for Urban Transport Research. Retrieved March 2, 2015 from https://www.cutr.usf.edu/oldpubs/mobile_phone.PDF

In-text citation: 

(Investigation, 1999)

Article or Web page Title Investigation of the use of mobile phones while driving period Date open parentheses 1999 comma April close parentheses period space Website Name in italics Center for Urban Transport Research period next line hanging indent Retrieved from URL Retrieved from https backslash backslash www period cutr period usf period edu backslash oldpubs backslash mobile underscore phone period PDF

If a website was created by an organization rather than named individual authors, use the organization name in place of authors at the beginning of the citation.

 

Article from a Database - APA

Journal Article or Newspaper Article from a Database

Format:

Author's last name + first initial. Date in parentheses. Title of journal/newspaper article in sentence case. Title of journal/newspaper in italics. Volume in italics, issue information - optional. Retrieved from URL.

Example:

Suen, A. (2006, 07). One fish, two fish, red fish, blue fish. Book Links, 15, 58. Retrieved from http://ezproxy.cpcc.edu/login?url=https://search.proquest.com/docview/197207802?accountid=10008

In-text citation (Author's last name, year): 

(Suen, 2006)

 

NOTE: According to the APA Manual, 6th edition, section 6.32 (pp. 191-192), provide the DOI of an article, if one has been assigned to the content. When a DOI is used, no further retrieval information is required.  If no DOI has been assigned to the content, provide the home page URL of the journal publisher. If accessing the article from a private database, you may need to do a quick web search to locate the URL. In general, it is not necessary to include database information.


eBook

Format:

Author's last name + first initial. Year in parentheses.Title of book in italics. Retrieved from URL.

Example:

Suen, A. (2006). Book Links. Retrieved from http://ezproxy.cpcc.edu/login?url=https://search.proquest.com/docview/197207802?accountid=10008

In-text citation (Author's last name, year): 

(Suen, 2006)

Author Suen comma A period space Date open parentheses 2006 close parentheses period eBook Title in italics Book Links period space Retrieved from URL Retrieved from https colon backslash backslash search period proquest period com backslash docview backslash 197207802

Youtube, Films on Demand - APA

Online Videos (i.e., YouTube)

Format;

Author(s) Last Name + initial(s) [username - optional], Date Published in parentheses, Title of video in sentence case [video file]. Website in italics. Retrieved from URL

Example:

Pulitzer Center. (2007, March 6). In focus: American teens, Rwandan truths. [Video file]. Youtube. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=luTsQLH3vNQ

In-text citation (Author, Year): 

(Zakira, 2007)

Author Pulitzer Center period space Date open parentheses 2007 comma space March space 6 close parentheses period Video Title In focus colon space American teens, Rwandan truths space Video File open brackets Video file close brackets period next line hanging indent Website Name in italics YouTube period space Retrieved from URL Retrieved from https colon backslash backslash www period youtube period com backslash watch question mark v equals sign luTsQLH3vNQ

Personal Interviews-APA

Personal Interviews

NOTE:  No personal communication (such as a personal interview) is included in your reference list.  Instead, parenthetically cite the communicator's name, the phrase "personal communication," and the date of the communication in your main text only.

For example:

(E. Robbins, personal communication, January 4, 2001).

A.P. Smith also claimed that many of her students had difficulties with APA style (personal communication, November 3, 2002)

Books APA

Book with one author

Format:

Author's last name + initial. Publication year in parentheses. Book title in italics. Publication city, State abbreviation: Publisher.

Example: 

O'Neil, S. K. (2013). Two nations indivisible: Mexico, the United States, and the road ahead. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.

In-text citation (Author's last name, year).

(O'Neil, 2013). 

Author O'Neill comma S period K period space Year open parentheses 2013 close parentheses period space Title Two nations indivisible no space colon space Mexico, the United States, and the road ahead period space City and State New York comma NY colon space next line hanging indent Publisher Oxford University Press period


Book with two authors

Format:

Author's last name + initial & Author's last name + initial. Publication year in perantheses. Book title in italics. Publication city, State abbreviation: Publisher.

Example: 

O'Neil, S. K. & Franklin, B. (2013). Two nations indivisible: Mexico, the United States, and the road ahead. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.

In-text citation (Author's last name & Author's last name, year).

(O'Neil & Franklin, 2013). 

Authors O'Neill comma S period K period space ampersand space Franklin comma B period space Year open parentheses 2013 close parentheses period space Title Two nations indivisible no space colon space Mexico, the United States, and the road ahead period next line hanging indent City and State New York comma NY colon space Publisher Oxford University Press period


Book with three or more authors

From How to Write Anything, third edition, "List every author up to and including seven; for work with eight or more authors, give the first six names followed by three ellipsis dots and the last author's name" (2015).


Work in an anthology or collection

Format: 

Author's last name plus initial. Publication year in parentheses. Title of story/article/essay in sentence case. In Editor's initial + editor's last name (Ed.), Title of anthology or collection in italics pp page numbers in parentheses. Publication city, State abbreviation: Publisher.

Example: 

Keller, H. (2008). I go adventuring. In P. Lopate (Ed.), Writing New York: A literary anthology (pp. 505-508). New York, NY: Library of America.

In-text citation (Author's last name, year).

(Keller, 2008)

Author Keller comma H period space Year open parentheses 2008 close parentheses period space Essay or Story Title I go adventuring period space Book Editor In P period space Lopate open parentheses uppercase E no space lowercase d period close parentheses comma space Book Title in italics Writing New York no space colon space A literary anthology space open parentheses pp period space 505 dash 508 close parentheses period next line hanging indent City and State New York comma NY colon space Publisher Library of America period


Edited collection

Format:

Editor's last name + first initial (Ed.). Publication year in parentheses. Book title in italics. Publication city, State abbreviation: Publisher. 

Example:

Lopate, P. (Ed.) (2008). Writing New York: A literary anthology. New York, NY: Library of America.

In-text citation (Editor's last name, year).

(Lopate, 2008)

Editor Lopate comma space P period space open parentheses uppercase E no space lowercase d period close parentheses space Year open parentheses 2008 close parentheses period space Book Title in italics Writing New York: A literary anthology period space City and State New York comma NY colon space Publisher Library of America period


Later edition

Format: 

Author's last name + initial. Publication year in perantheses. Book title in italics Edition information. Publication city, State abbreviation: Publisher.

Example: 

O'Neil, S. K. & Franklin, B. (2013). Two nations indivisible: Mexico, the United States, and the road ahead (6th ed.). New York, NY: Oxford University Press.

In-text citation (Author's last name, year).

(O'Neil & Franklin, 2013)

Author O'Neil comma S period K period space ampersand space Franklin comma B period space Year open parentheses 2013 close parentheses period space Title in italics Two nations indivisible: Mexico, the United States, and the road ahead next line hanging indent Edition open parentheses 6th space lowercase ed period close parentheses period space City and State New York comma NY colon space Publisher Oxford University Press period


Multivolume work

Format: 

Author's last name + initial. Publication year in perantheses. Book title in italics Volume information Publication city, State abbreviation: Publisher.

Example: 

O'Neil, S. K. (2013). Two nations indivisible: Mexico, the United States, and the road ahead (Vols. 1-5). New York, NY: Oxford University Press.

In-text citation (Author's last name, year).

(O'Neil, 2013)

Author O'Neil comma S period K period space Year open parentheses 2013 close parentheses period space Title in italics Two nations indivisible: Mexico, the United States, and the road ahead space Volumes open parentheses Vols period space 1 dash 5 close parentheses period next line hanging indent City and State New York comma NY colon space Publisher Oxford University Press period

Tweet-APA

Tweet

Format:

Author's name + initial(s) (Username). Date in parentheses. Full tweet in sentence case [Tweet]. Twitter. Retrieved from URL

Example:

Fey, T (@mstinafey). (2015, Feb 6). Dear Car Companies, Please replace glove compartments with toaster ovens [Tweet]. Twitter. Retrieved from https://twitter.com/MsTinaFey/status/563834282511446018

In-text Citation (Author's last name, year)

(Fey, 2015)

Author Fey comma space T space Username open parentheses at sign mstinafey close parentheses period space Date open parentheses 2015 comma space Feb space 6 close parentheses period space Full Tweet Text Dear Car Companies, Please replace glove compartments with toaster ovens next line hanging indent Tweet open brackets Tweet close brackets period space Website Name in italics Twitter period space Retrieved from URL Retrieved from https colon backslash backslash twitter period com backslash MsTinaFey backslash status backslash 563834282511446018

Images

Image

Format:

Artist’s Last Name, First Initial. Second Initial. (Year). Title of the artwork [Format]. Retrieved from URL (address of web site)

Example: 

Baumel, A.  (2010). Cholera treatment center in Haiti [Online image]. Retrieved October 2, 2010 from https://www.doctorswithoutborders.org

In-text Citation (Author's last name, year):

(Baumel, 2010)

APA Citation for Image File: Artist’s Last Name, First Initial. Second Initial. (Year). Title of the artwork [Format]. Retrieved from URL (address of web site)

Image (No author)

Format:

Title of the artwork [Format]. (Year).  Retrieved from URL (address of web site)

Example: 

Flu epidemic [Online image]. (1919). Retrieved October 2, 2010 from https://www.doctorswithoutborders.org

In-text Citation (Author's last name, year):

("Title of Work", 2010)

APA Citation of an Image with No Author or Artist Name: Title of the artwork [Format]. (Year).  Retrieved from URL (address of web site)

Image (No author, no title, no date)

Many images found on the Web fall under this category.

      Try to locate the missing information by clicking on the image, and/or looking at the bottom of the image.

Format:

[Subject and type of work]. Retrieved from URL (address of web site)

Example: 

[Untitled illustration of a sleeping dog]. Retrieved December 5, 2010 from http://www.sleepinganimals/pix.html

In-text Citation (Author's last name, year):

([Title of Work], n.d.)

APA Citation with no Artist or Date: [Subject and type of work]. Retrieved from URL (address of web site)