The APA citation formats (6th edition) provided below are the most commonly used.
For a more comprehensive list of citation formats, visit the Purdue Online Writing Lab (OWL).
APA Sample References List (6th edition) - 1 Page Handout
Book with two authors
Book with three to seven authors
Book with more than seven authors
NOTE: Use this format if the book you are using is only provided in a digital format or is difficult to find in print. If the work is not directly available online or must be purchased, use "Available from," rather than "Retrieved from," and point readers to where they can find it. For books available in print form and electronic form, include the publish date in parentheses after the author's name.
Also, be sure to include n.d. in references if there is no publication date given (as in the example above), and n.p. if no publisher is listed.
NOTE: According to the APA Manual, 6th edition, section 6.32 (pp. 191-192), provide the DOI of an article, if one has been assigned to the content. When a DOI is used, no further retrieval information is required. If no DOI has been assigned to the content, provide the home page URL of the journal publisher. If accessing the article from a private database, you may need to do a quick web search to locate the URL. In general, it is not necessary to include database information.
If each issue of a journal begins on page 1, give the issue number in parentheses immediately after the volume number.
NOTE: According to the APA Manual, 6th edition, section 6.32 (pp. 191-199), provide the DOI of an article, if one has been assigned to the content. When a DOI is used, no further retrieval information is required. If no DOI has been assigned to the content, provide the home page URL of the newspaper. If accessing the article from a private database, you may need to do a quick web search to locate the URL. In general, it is not necessary to include database information.
Web Page with No Date
NOTE: When citing a web page that may change over time (a blog, a regularly-updated informational site like Yahoo Finance) and/or that has multiple authors/editors (like Wikis), be sure to include an access date between "Retrieved" and "from." For example, the above citation including an access date would look like this:
Archer, D. (n.d.). A world of gestures. Exploring Nonverbal Communication. Retrieved March 2, 2015 from
Citations for pages including items like published articles generally do not require an access date. If you're not sure whether your particular web page's citation needs an access date, it's best to include one, just to be safe!
Web Page with No Author
NOTE: List as much of the following information as possible (you sometimes have to hunt around to find the information; don't be lazy.) If there is a page like http://www.somesite.com/somepage.htm, and somepage.htm doesn't have the information you're looking for, move up the URL to http://www.somesite.com/
When an Internet document is more than one Web page, provide a URL that links to the home page or entry page for the document. Also, if there isn't a date available for the document use (n.d.) for no date.
If a website was created by an organization rather than named individual authors, use the organization name in place of authors at the beginning of the citation.
NOTE: Wiki citations, like all pages that may change over time, contain an access date (the date that the information was retrieved, listed between "Retrieved" and "from").
Because Wikis can be edited by anyone at any time, they should be used with extreme caution, and often avoided, during scholarly research.
NOTE: No personal communication (such as personal interviews) is included in your reference list. Instead parenthetically cite the communicator's name, the phrase "personal communication," and the date of the communication in your main text only.
(E. Robbins, personal communication, January 4, 2001).
A.P. Smith also claimed that many of her students had difficulties with APA style (personal communication, November 3, 2002)