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In addition to providing a References page at the end of your paper, you must also cite your sources within the paper itself.  These citations in the body of your paper are called in-text citations.  All sources that are cited within the text of your paper text must appear in the References list at the end of the paper.  In-text citations (sometimes referred to as parenthetical citations or references) provide at least the author’s last name and the year of publication.  For direct quotations and some paraphrases, a page number is given as well. 


  • APA style requires the use of the past tense or the present perfect tense in signal phrases introducing cited material: Smith (2005) reported; Smith (2005) has argued.
  • If you are referring to an idea from another work but NOT directly quoting the material, or making reference to an entire book, article or other work, you only have to make reference to the author and year of publication and not the page number in your in-text reference.

When possible, cite electronic sources, including online sources, as you would any other source, giving the author and the year. Electronic sources sometimes lack authors' names, dates, or page numbers.  Do not include a URL in the in-text citation.  For more information, please visit the Purdue Owl Writing Lab’s APA Formatting and Style Guide at https://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/560/1/ or contact your course librarian today!